Research published by the IZA Institute of Labour Economics in Germany found gay employees are less likely to be promoted to higher-level management jobs than their straight colleagues on the same position and with the same level of productivity. The study, which uses data from the 2009 to 2014 UK Integrated Household Surveys, found the trend appears to be caused by discrimination. And the statistics is even more terrifying for racial minorities. According to the researchers, the results for women are “less clear cut” in comparison to men. The study also found that aside from sexual orientation, women and people of color generally face a higher glass ceiling. “Non-white men and women show a general disadvantage compared to white men and women,” the study states. The researchers also found gay men of color are less likely to hold a higher-position managerial job than white gay men. Women, on the whole, are significantly less likely to report managerial and/or supervisory authority compared to men, the paper states.