Experts are “optimistic” about three late-stage trials for a HIV vaccine, predicting its availability as soon as in 2021. Dr Susan Buchbinder is chairing two of three trials, named Imbokodo and Mosaico. A third trial, HVTN 702, is also entering its final stages. Buchbinder told NBC that there are currently 3 vaccine samples tested to detect which one is the most effective to be further developed, and the results of primary tests show that there are high chances to develop an effective vaccine much sooner than you may think. The HVTN 702 trial is the oldest ongoing HIV vaccine trial, and it targets a specific strain of HIV typically found in Southern Africa. HVTN 702 was based on the RV144 vaccine, which in 2009 managed to reduce the rate of HIV infections by 30 percent. Although that was not enough for it to be considered successful, it is to date the only vaccine to have any effect on the virus. Clinical results for HVTN 702 are expected in late 2020 or early 2021. Imbokodo and Mosaico, however, use “mosaic” immunogens which means they could target a range of HIV strains. They are almost identical, but with slightly different formulations. Results from the Imbokodo trials are expected in 2021, and results from Mosaico are expected in 2023.